The crater of a long extinct volcano is the setting of Ivory Tree Game Lodge in Pilanesberg Game Reserve – a fascinating alkaline complex produced by volcanic eruptions some 1300 million years ago. Pilanesberg Game Reserve is one of the largest volcanic complexes of its kind in the world. Its rare rock types and structure make it a unique geological feature.The area is fringed by three concentric ridges or rings of hills – the formation rises from the surrounding plains like a bubble. The structure of the park is termed the “Pilanesberg Game Reserve Alkaline Ring Complex”. Ancient, even by geological time scales, this extinct volcano is the most perfect example of an alkaline ring complex. A number of rare (but not necessarily economically important) minerals occur in the park. Pilanesberg National Park rates high amongst the world’s outstanding geological phenomena. Pilanesberg Game Reserve has survived ages of erosion and stands high above the surrounding bushveld plains. The early presence of man can be seen in the numerous Stone and Iron Age sites that are scattered throughout the park. The park exists within the transition zone between the dry Kalahari and wetter Lowveld vegetation, commonly referred to as “Bushveld”. Unlike any other large park, unique overlaps of mammals, birds and vegetation occur because of this transition zone. Springbok, brown hyena, the red eyed bulbul, and camel thorn trees usually found in arid areas are found cohabitation with moist-area-limited impala, black eyed bulbul and Cape chestnut trees.